Sponsoring Phase I trial for the Multi-Centered Fetoscopic Treatment of Open Spina Bifida. Research has shown that antenatal treatment of OSB is associated with improved results, compared to postnatal treatment. The first antenatal treatment approach was done via open fetal surgery (OFS), which requires performing a laparotomy (large incision in the maternal abdomen), or a hysterotomy (incision in the uterus), with partial exposure of the fetus. Treatment of mothers affected with OSB via OFS showed improved results for the babies, compared to postnatal treatment, but was also associated with increased risks for the mother, including a 33% chance of thinning or rupture of the uterus. Additional funding was provided to allow for the purchase of surgical tools at two treatment sites and two simulators for physician practice and use. Grant update with more information available Fall 2019.